PMID: 10198642
Xu HE, Lambert MH, Montana VG, Parks DJ, Blanchard SG, Brown PJ, Sternbach DD, Lehmann JM, Wisely GB, Willson TM, Kliewer SA, Milburn MV
Molecular recognition of fatty acids by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors.
Mol Cell. 1999 Mar;3(3):397-403.
The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are nuclear receptors for fatty acids (FAs) that regulate glucose and lipid homeostasis. We report the crystal structure of the PPAR delta ligand-binding domain (LBD) bound to either the FA eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) or the synthetic fibrate GW2433. The carboxylic acids of EPA and GW2433 interact directly with the activation function 2 (AF-2) helix. The hydrophobic tail of EPA adopts two distinct conformations within the large hydrophobic cavity. GW2433 occupies essentially the same space as EPA bound in both conformations. These structures provide molecular insight into the propensity for PPARs to interact with a variety of synthetic and natural compounds, including FAs that vary in both chain length and degree of saturation.