PMID: 11970895 , Related PDB id: 1LJO
Cheyette BN, Waxman JS, Miller JR, Takemaru K, Sheldahl LC, Khlebtsova N, Fox EP, Earnest T, Moon RT
Dapper, a Dishevelled-associated antagonist of beta-catenin and JNK signaling, is required for notochord formation.
Dev Cell. 2002 Apr;2(4):449-61.
Dapper was isolated in a screen for proteins interacting with Dishevelled, a key factor in Wnt signaling. Dapper and Dishevelled colocalize intracellularly and form a complex with Axin, GSK-3, CKI, and beta-catenin. Overexpression of Dapper increases Axin and GSK-3 in this complex, resulting in decreased soluble beta-catenin and decreased activation of beta-catenin-responsive genes. Dapper also inhibits activation by Dishevelled of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), a component of beta-catenin-independent Frizzled signaling. Inhibition of Dapper activates both beta-catenin-responsive genes and an AP1-responsive promoter, demonstrating that Dapper is a general Dishevelled antagonist. Depletion of maternal Dapper RNA from Xenopus embryos results in loss of notochord and head structures, demonstrating that Dapper is required for normal vertebrate development.