PMID: 12614615 , Related PDB id: 1J3H
Akamine P, Madhusudan, Wu J, Xuong NH, Ten Eyck LF, Taylor SS
Dynamic features of cAMP-dependent protein kinase revealed by apoenzyme crystal structure.
J Mol Biol. 2003 Mar 14;327(1):159-71.
To better understand the mechanism of ligand binding and ligand-induced conformational change, the crystal structure of apoenzyme catalytic (C) subunit of adenosine-3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase (PKA) was solved. The apoenzyme structure (Apo) provides a snapshot of the enzyme in the first step of the catalytic cycle, and in this unliganded form the PKA C subunit adopts an open conformation. A hydrophobic junction is formed by residues from the small and large lobes that come into close contact. This "greasy" patch may lubricate the shearing motion associated with domain rotation, and the opening and closing of the active-site cleft. Although Apo appears to be quite dynamic, many important residues for MgATP binding and phosphoryl transfer in the active site are preformed. Residues around the adenine ring of ATP and residues involved in phosphoryl transfer from the large lobe are mostly preformed, whereas residues involved in ribose binding and in the Gly-rich loop are not. Prior to ligand binding, Lys72 and the C-terminal tail, two important ATP-binding elements are also disordered. The surface created in the active site is contoured to bind ATP, but not GTP, and appears to be held in place by a stable hydrophobic core, which includes helices C, E, and F, and beta strand 6. This core seems to provide a network for communicating from the active site, where nucleotide binds, to the peripheral peptide-binding F-to-G helix loop, exemplified by Phe239. Two potential lines of communication are the D helix and the F helix. The conserved Trp222-Phe238 network, which lies adjacent to the F-to-G helix loop, suggests that this network would exist in other protein kinases and may be a conserved means of communicating ATP binding from the active site to the distal peptide-binding ledge.