PMID: 15039442 , Related PDB id: 1SQ0
Dumas JJ, Kumar R, McDonagh T, Sullivan F, Stahl ML, Somers WS, Mosyak L
Crystal structure of the wild-type von Willebrand factor A1-glycoprotein Ibalpha complex reveals conformation differences with a complex bearing von Willebrand disease mutations.
J Biol Chem. 2004 May 28;279(22):23327-34. Epub 2004 Mar 23.
The adhesion of platelets to the subendothelium of blood vessels at sites of vascular injury under high shear conditions is mediated by a direct interaction between the platelet receptor glycoprotein Ibalpha (GpIbalpha) and the A1 domain of the von Willebrand factor (VWF). Here we report the 2.6-A crystal structure of a complex comprised of the extracellular domain of GpIbalpha and the wild-type A1 domain of VWF. A direct comparison of this structure to a GpIbalpha-A1 complex containing "gain-of-function" mutations, A1-R543Q and GpIbalpha-M239V, reveals specific structural differences between these complexes at sites near the two GpIbalpha-A1 binding interfaces. At the smaller interface, differences in interaction show that the alpha1-beta2 loop of A1 serves as a conformational switch, alternating between an open alpha1-beta2 isomer that allows faster dissociation of GpIbalpha-A1, as observed in the wild-type complex, and an extended isomer that favors tight association as seen in the complex containing A1 with a type 2B von Willebrand Disease (VWD) mutation associated with spontaneous binding to GpIbalpha. At the larger interface, differences in interaction associated with the GpIbalpha-M239V platelet-type VWD mutation are minor and localized but feature discrete gamma-turn conformers at the loop end of the beta-hairpin structure. The beta-hairpin, stabilized by a strong classic gamma-turn as seen in the mutant complex, relates to the increased affinity of A1 binding, and the beta-hairpin with a weak inverse gamma-turn observed in the wild-type complex corresponds to the lower affinity state of GpIbalpha. These findings provide important details that add to our understanding of how both type 2B and platelet-type VWD mutations affect GpIbalpha-A1 binding affinity.