PMID: 16239734
Jakobsson E, Nilsson J, Ogg D, Kleywegt GJ
Structure of human semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase/vascular adhesion protein-1.
Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 2005 Nov;61(Pt 11):1550-62. Epub 2005, Oct 19.
Semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO) belongs to a ubiquitous family of copper-containing amine oxidases (CuAOs). SSAO is also known as vascular adhesion protein-1 (VAP-1) and has been identified as one of the adhesion molecules involved in the leukocyte-extravasation process. The structure of a truncated soluble form of human SSAO has been solved and refined to 2.5 A. As expected, SSAO is a homodimer with a fold typical of the CuAO family. The topaquinone (TPQ) cofactor and a copper ion characteristic of CuAOs are present in the active site, with the TPQ in the active ;off-copper' conformation. The structure reveals that a leucine residue (Leu469) located adjacent to the active site could function as a gate controlling its accessibility. An RGD motif is displayed on the surface, where it could be involved in integrin binding and possibly play a role in the shedding of SSAO from the membrane. Carbohydrate moieties are observed at five of six potential N-glycosylation sites. Carbohydrates attached to Asn232 flank the active-site entrance and might influence substrate specificity. The structure of an adduct of SSAO and the irreversible inhibitor 2-hydrazinopyridine has been solved and refined to 2.9 A resolution. Together, these structures will aid efforts to identify natural substrates, provide valuable information for the design of specific inhibitors and direct further studies.