21854986 , Related PDB ids: 3S8W, 3S98, 3S9D, 3SE3, 3SE4
- Thomas C, Moraga I, Levin D, Krutzik PO, Podoplelova Y, Trejo A, Lee C, Yarden G, Vleck SE, Glenn JS, Nolan GP, Piehler J, Schreiber G, Garcia KC
- Structural linkage between ligand discrimination and receptor activation by type I interferons.
- Cell. 2011 Aug 19;146(4):621-32.
- Type I Interferons (IFNs) are important cytokines for innate immunity against viruses and cancer. Sixteen human type I IFN variants signal through the same cell-surface receptors, IFNAR1 and IFNAR2, yet they can evoke markedly different physiological effects. The crystal structures of two human type I IFN ternary signaling complexes containing IFNalpha2 and IFNomega reveal recognition modes and heterotrimeric architectures that are unique among the cytokine receptor superfamily but conserved between different type I IFNs. Receptor-ligand cross-reactivity is enabled by conserved receptor-ligand "anchor points" interspersed among ligand-specific interactions that "tune" the relative IFN-binding affinities, in an apparent extracellular "ligand proofreading" mechanism that modulates biological activity. Functional differences between IFNs are linked to their respective receptor recognition chemistries, in concert with a ligand-induced conformational change in IFNAR1, that collectively control signal initiation and complex stability, ultimately regulating differential STAT phosphorylation profiles, receptor internalization rates, and downstream gene expression patterns.