PMID: 24520058 , Related PDB ids: 4E8G, 4IZG, 4J1O
Kumar R, Zhao S, Vetting MW, Wood BM, Sakai A, Cho K, Solbiati J, Almo SC, Sweedler JV, Jacobson MP, Gerlt JA, Cronan JE
Prediction and biochemical demonstration of a catabolic pathway for the osmoprotectant proline betaine.
MBio. 2014 Feb 11;5(1):e00933-13. doi: 10.1128/mBio.00933-13.
UNLABELLED: Through the use of genetic, enzymatic, metabolomic, and structural analyses, we have discovered the catabolic pathway for proline betaine, an osmoprotectant, in Paracoccus denitrificans and Rhodobacter sphaeroides. Genetic and enzymatic analyses showed that several of the key enzymes of the hydroxyproline betaine degradation pathway also function in proline betaine degradation. Metabolomic analyses detected each of the metabolic intermediates of the pathway. The proline betaine catabolic pathway was repressed by osmotic stress and cold stress, and a regulatory transcription factor was identified. We also report crystal structure complexes of the P. denitrificans HpbD hydroxyproline betaine epimerase/proline betaine racemase with l-proline betaine and cis-hydroxyproline betaine. IMPORTANCE: At least half of the extant protein annotations are incorrect, and the errors propagate as the number of genome sequences increases exponentially. A large-scale, multidisciplinary sequence- and structure-based strategy for functional assignment of bacterial enzymes of unknown function has demonstrated the pathway for catabolism of the osmoprotectant proline betaine.