- Malavath T, Caspy I, Netzer-El SY, Klaiman D, Nelson N
- Structure and function of wild-type and subunit-depleted photosystem I in Synechocystis.
- Biochim Biophys Acta. 2018 Feb 4. pii: S0005-2728(18)30018-5. doi:, 10.1016/j.bbabio.2018.02.002.
- The ability of photosynthetic organisms to use the sun's light as a sole source of energy sustains life on our planet. Photosystems I (PSI) and II (PSII) are large, multi-subunit, pigment-protein complexes that enable photosynthesis, but this intriguing process remains to be explained fully. Currently, crystal structures of these complexes are available for thermophilic prokaryotic cyanobacteria. The mega-Dalton trimeric PSI complex from thermophilic cyanobacterium, Thermosynechococcus elongatus, was solved at 2.5A resolution with X-ray crystallography. That structure revealed the positions of 12 protein subunits (PsaA-F, PsaI-M, and PsaX) and 127 cofactors. Although mesophilic organisms perform most of the world's photosynthesis, no well-resolved trimeric structure of a mesophilic organism exists. Our research model for a mesophilic cyanobacterium was Synechocystis sp. PCC6803. This study aimed to obtain well-resolved crystal structures of  a monomeric PSI with all subunits,  a trimeric PSI with a reduced number of subunits, and  the full, trimeric wild-type PSI complex. We only partially succeeded with the first two structures, but we successfully produced the trimeric PSI structure at 2.5A resolution. This structure was comparable to that of the thermophilic species, but we provided more detail. The PSI trimeric supercomplex consisted of 33 protein subunits, 72 carotenoids, 285 chlorophyll a molecules, 51 lipids, 9 iron-sulfur clusters, 6 plastoquinones, 6 putative calcium ions, and over 870 water molecules. This study showed that the structure of the PSI in Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 differed from previously described PSI structures. These findings have broadened our understanding of PSI structure.