PMID: 7708670
Kempf DJ, Marsh KC, Denissen JF, McDonald E, Vasavanonda S, Flentge CA, Green BE, Fino L, Park CH, Kong XP, et al.
ABT-538 is a potent inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus protease and has high oral bioavailability in humans.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995 Mar 28;92(7):2484-8.
Examination of the structural basis for antiviral activity, oral pharmacokinetics, and hepatic metabolism among a series of symmetry-based inhibitors of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) protease led to the discovery of ABT-538, a promising experimental drug for the therapeutic intervention in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). ABT-538 exhibited potent in vitro activity against laboratory and clinical strains of HIV-1 [50% effective concentration (EC50) = 0.022-0.13 microM] and HIV-2 (EC50 = 0.16 microM). Following a single 10-mg/kg oral dose, plasma concentrations in rat, dog, and monkey exceeded the in vitro antiviral EC50 for > 12 h. In human trials, a single 400-mg dose of ABT-538 displayed a prolonged absorption profile and achieved a peak plasma concentration in excess of 5 micrograms/ml. These findings demonstrate that high oral bioavailability can be achieved in humans with peptidomimetic inhibitors of HIV protease.