- Wilken J, Hoover D, Thompson DA, Barlow PN, McSparron H, Picard L, Wlodawer A, Lubkowski J, Kent SB
- Total chemical synthesis and high-resolution crystal structure of the potent anti-HIV protein AOP-RANTES.
- Chem Biol. 1999 Jan;6(1):43-51.
- BACKGROUND: RANTES is a CC-type chemokine protein that acts as a chemoattractant for several kinds of leukocytes, playing an important pro-inflammatory role. Entry of human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) into cells depends on the chemokine receptor CCR5. RANTES binds CCR5 and inhibits HIV-1 entry into peripheral blood cells. Interaction with chemokine receptors involves a distinct set of residues at the amino terminus of RANTES. This finding was utilized in the development of a chemically modified aminooxypentane derivative of RANTES, AOP-RANTES, that was originally produced from the recombinant protein using semisynthetic methods. RESULTS: AOP-RANTES has been produced by a novel total chemical synthesis that provides efficient, direct access to large amounts of this anti-HIV protein analog. The crystal structure of chemically synthesized AOP-RANTES has been solved and refined at 1.6 A resolution. The protein is a dimer, with the amino-terminal pentane oxime moiety clearly defined. CONCLUSIONS: Total chemical synthesis of AOP-RANTES provides a convenient method of producing the multi-milligram quantities of this protein needed to investigate the molecular basis of receptor binding and antiviral activity. This work provides the first truly high-resolution structure of a RANTES protein, although the structure of RANTES was known from previous nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) determinations.